The JR Main Line or JR Chuo-honsen runs 246km from Tokyo to Nagoya, through some lovely mountain areas. Most travelers take the much quicker Shinkansen bullet train which takes 1 hour, 40 minutes from Nagoya to Tokyo Station by the fastest Nozomi trains, via Yokohama Station and Shinagawa Station in Shinagawa. The non-reserved fare is 10,070 yen.
If you wanted to get from Nagoya to Tokyo by express train your journey time would be dramatically increased and you would need to change trains a number of times. The fare would be 6,300 yen but would be more than double the travel time.
Leaving Nagoya Station, you would travel via Kanayama to Nakatsugawa. Change here for a Shinano Express to Shiojiri. From Shiojiri take a train to Takao via Kofu and Otsuki. From Takao the penultimate leg of the journey takes you from Takao Station to Mitaka, where you need to change again for a Chuo-Sobu Line service to Tokyo Station.
The rail link between the capital and Nagoya was completed in 1911.
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